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Coming to Terms
Circuit-A discrete portion of the electrical power delivery system, continuous from a single circuit breaker at the substation to a set of customers. It is also referred to as a feeder.
Distribution-Delivery of a commodity such as gas, electricity, or water to the end consumer. The analogous system for sewer utilities is the collection system.
Lift station-A facility or group of facilities used to move flow from a lower to a higher elevation. This is a key facility to the sewer utility.
Main-The backbone or principal line facility in the distribution system for gas, water, sewer, and sometimes electrical systems.
Meter-The measuring device used to monitor the customer's use of the commodity.
Premise-The location of the consumer. Occasionally this term refers to a facility or location within the network model.
Pump station-A facility or group of facilities used to increase or occasionally decrease pressure. This is a key facility for a water utility. Right-of-Way-or easement is a grant to locate facilities on an area of real property.
SCADA-Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is a remote monitoring and control system. This term is traditionally applied to the transmission system but has been more recently used with regard to distribution systems.
Service-The last element of the network before the customer takes ownership. Typically, it is a line, cable, or pipe dedicated to one consumer.
Service point-Point of delivery of the commodity or the end of the service line.
Transmission-Bulk delivery of a commodity such as gas, electricity, or water for redistribution or resale. Typically, transmission lines operate at a higher volume, pressure, or voltage than distribution lines.
Vault-An underground pit where facilities are accessed and junctions or connections are made.
To better analyze existing and potential customers, the client also wanted to create segments based on common characteristics to aid in targeting specific products and services to customers.
The client also wanted data and tools to look into other geographic areas outside regulated service areas in search of potential customers as well as to protect existing contracts from competitors. In particular, the client wanted to prevent customers from bypassing their company and tapping into interstate pipelines.
Finally, the client wanted a system for tracking the success of its sales force, displaying results, and reporting in tabular, chart, and map formats for corporate presentations, mailing lists for marketing pieces, and leads lists for direct sales activities.
individual residential, commercial, or industrial customer. A customer
has only one account number. A customer is a base class and a customer
record includes the following attribute information: Name
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)-A four-digit code developed by the Office of Management and Budget to facilitate statistical economic analysis and reporting by the government. Segment-A grouping of customers, based on common characteristics such as SIC, energy consumption, or number of employees. A customer can be in only one segment at a time and typically stays in a segment for one to three years. Segments can be made up of customers or potential customers in different themes.
Target-A grouping of customers who might buy a specific product or service. Target groups are smaller, more specific groups based on common characteristics. Targets can cross-segment groupings and can be made up of customers or potential customers in different themes. A customer can be in more than one target group at a time.
Product/Service-Something the client sells: a commodity such as volumes of gas sold at a particular rate, a specific item such as a gas-powered air compressor, or a service such as a repair contract on appliances. Many customers purchase several products or services at once. The client also wanted to track goals and actuals for sales territories, sales representatives, and products and services. To support the tracking application, the following conceptual objects were created.
Goal-An objective for a particular sales representative, sales territory, product or service, target, or segment. Goals are numeric in nature and must be in one of the following categories:
Sales Territory-A geographic area covered by one or more sales representatives that has one or more goals associated with a product or service.
Sales Representative-A member of the sales force assigned to one sales territory that has goals associated with a product or service.
Typically, the user will select a geographic region to investigate such as a state or a competitor's Local Distribution Company (LDC) boundary. The user then selects the characteristics of industries in that area. By creating thematic maps, concentrations of these industries by SIC and size can be located. The user can also view the annual energy use patterns of those industries by the size of the establishments.
and Targeting Applications
Segments and targets are subsets of the customer themes based on specific characteristics. Targets are usually subsets of segments. Performing a "what-if" analysis defines a segment or a target. Each time a user selects a query, an "AND" restriction is added, reducing the size of the selection set.
For example, the client wants to create segments of large industrial customers that support the automobile industry because these kinds of customers use lots of natural gas. First, the user could select a geographic area such as a state that includes both existing customers and customers of competitors. Next, a query-based SIC would return customers in the industry of interest. Finally, the number of employees or some other criteria could be used to further refine the selection.
The user can then generate a leads list, mailing labels, or a telemarketing list for the sales force that includes all of the customers and potential customers to be targeted.
Goals and Actuals Application
Interstate natural gas pipelines are thematically displayed on the screen. The user selects one or more customers by segment, location, or consumption, and then selects one or two buffer distances. The application selects all interstate pipelines within the specified distances of the selected customers and displays them on the screen.
A report can then be generated to show which customers are within the selected distances of interstate pipelines, which pipeline the buffer intersects, and the distance from the customer. This identifies both the competing pipeline and the customers who are at risk. Similarly, the analysis can be completed by selecting and buffering a pipeline and by finding all customers within a certain distance of it.
PresenTable for Reporting
PresenTable provides wizards for basic report creation, as well as an interface for designing reports. With Developer's Kit, custom reports are created in Avenue scripts that are run from a library using the PresenTable run-time executable rather than the full extension. When these custom reports are called, the PresenTable run-time executable provides the same viewing and printing interface as the full version. Reporting functions are accessed from the GUI of each application.
All other data were produced from the customer's existing data sources, either on paper or in digital format. Data purchase and processing was a significant cost in this project and exceeded original estimates. The majority of the data was provided in CD-ROM format.
of Applications and Data
Each client PC has a copy of ArcView GIS as well as the dynamic link libraries and .dat files required by Dialog Designer and the PresenTable run-time executable file. The PresenTable run-time executables and temporary .dbf files for reports are stored in specific directories outside the Esri directory tree so that files cannot be altered or deleted accidentally. The ArcView GIS project file that contains the applications was placed in the user's home directory.
This article was based on a paper written for the 1998 Esri User Conference.