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Determines the amount of smoothing in a point pattern. The bandwidth defines the radius of the circle centered on each grid cell that contains the points used in density calculation.

Community policing
A relatively new approach to law enforcement designed to reduce and prevent crime by increasing interaction and cooperation between local law enforcement agencies and the people and neighborhoods they serve. The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 authorized funds to promote community policing.

Computer-aided dispatch (CAD)
A system designed to improve on law enforcement response time. Enhanced 911 provides a reported address to a CAD system that selects the most applicable unit. When integrated with mapping, global positioning systems, and advanced vehicle location, the dispatcher can select travel routes that can be mapped and displayed at the dispatch center or on a computer in the patrol vehicle.

Kernel smoothing
A methodology for processing spatial data that creates a smooth map of density values. The density at each location reflects the concentration of points in the surrounding area.

Megan's Law
Enacted in 1996, this federal law requires local law enforcement agencies in all 50 states to notify schools, day care centers, and parents about the presence of certain sex offenders in their area. The law was named for a seven-year-old Megan Kanka of Hamilton Township, New Jersey. In 1994, she was kidnapped, raped, and murdered, allegedly by a neighbor who was a twice-convicted sex offender.

National Institute of Justic (NIJ)
The research agency of the United States Department of Justice that supports research, evaluation, and demonstration programs that improve the criminal justice system and reduce or prevent crime.

Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994
The largest crime bill in the history of the United States, it provides for 100,000 new police officers, $9.7 billion in funding for prisons, and $6.1 billion in funding for prevention programs.

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