When you upgrade your geodatabase to ArcGIS 10.1, ArcGIS 10 clients will still be able to connect to it. Esri recommends that ArcGIS 10 clients connecting to version 10.1 geodatabases use ArcGIS 10 SP2. This service pack contains several fixes to improve the user experience for connecting to version 10.1 geodatabases.
ArcGIS 10 clients can open, query, edit, and save data to a 10.1 geodatabase. However, they cannot open datasets with 10.1 functionality.
ArcGIS 10.0 for Desktop cannot share maps or tools as web services on ArcGIS 10.1 for Server.
Once a version 9.3.1 or earlier geodatabase has been upgraded, it can no longer be accessed from an ArcGIS 9.3.1 or earlier client.
Note: ArcMap cannot open map documents saved in a newer version of ArcGIS. To open a map document created in a newer version of ArcGIS, use the File>Save a Copy command in a session of the newer version to create an earlier version copy.